sbmIf you have not seen the digital age in pet coming, it’s arrival has now been fully announced.  In the past year, a remarkable number of meaningful events have happened to punctuate it’s arrival.  Many of those events were likely to have gone unnoticed at the time, but in aggregate its hard to ignore.  Notably the past last year was book-ended on one end by Mars acquisition of Whistle Labs (March 31, 2016) and the merger of A Place for Rover and Dog Vacay (March 29, 2017) on the other end.  In between we have witnessed the rise of at the expense of Petco, PetSmart, and even Amazon; Phillips Feed Services acquisition of Petflow for the purpose of arming independent retailers for the digital pet race; and a total $154 million dollars invested in 46 pet-tech deals.


Historically, it has been easy to dismiss the digital pet movement as a novelty act, confined to products whose addressable market was small and whose value proposition was narrow.  It’s true that many of the first generation products were poorly designed or over engineered, and generally expensive.  Further, the arrival of pet tech was slowed by the inability of core pet retailers to sell the solution set.  Simply stated, Petco and PetSmart were not well set up to educate consumers on why they needed to own a $200 smart feeder or a $150 remote treating system.  Further, technology retailers, such as Best Buy, knew very little about the category and were therefore unable to effectively merchandise a pet technology set.

Despite these impediments, it’s hard to argue with the results of the market leaders.  Whistle Labs was acquired by Mars for $117 million, representing a high single digit multiple of revenue.  As we detailed in our last post, has achieved over 50% market share in online sales and anticipates 2017 sales of $1.5 billion. Finally, A Place for Rover ( was valued at more then $308 million its $40 million Series E financing closed in October 2016.  Rover also announced that it acquired its primary domestic competitor Dog Vacay in a stock-for-stock transaction. In our discussion with other pet technology companies many of them appear poised to deliver strong growth and financial results in 2017.

The collective impact of these digital pet companies and their ascendancy in terms of industry importance can no longer be ignored.  While the negative comps produced by both Petco and PetSmart in 2016, and the recent deterioration of their leveraged loan valuations, can be attributed to a variety of factors, it’s hard to argue that the rise of and the lack of traffic drivers attractive to the Millennials, and subsequent generations, such as pet technology products, has been a key contributor.  The fact that the vast majority of pet food brands are available online, making their availability more commoditized, and not an influencer of store visits, is exacerbating the problem.  Further, Rover and DogVacay have served to disrupt the discretionary services segment of the market, for whom Petco and PetSmart (both boarding and grooming), along with VCA Antech (boarding) and Banfield Animal Health (boarding),  are the most established players.  Prior to the take private, PetSmart generated $750+ million in services revenue annually, accounting for ~ 12% of revenues.

The ability of incumbent players to catch-up digitally is limited.  Earnings based companies are hesitant to acquire companies without an established track record of profitability given their valuation paradigms consist of multiples of EBITDA or contribution margin.  Mars benefited from its private nature when considering the acquisition of Whistle.   A subset of major players we have spoken to are waiting around for these companies to stumble in hopes of acquiring them at bargain prices.  While companies like have “scraped paint” in the past, we see this strategy as unlikely to succeed in the near to medium term.  Those who are called to action, but partially paralyzed by their valuation paradigms will seek to partner.  Whether creating these bridges will be enough to move the needle or insulate them from risk remains to be seen.


Note: This blog is for informational purposes only. The opinions expressed reflect my view as of the publishing date, which are subject to change. While this post utilizes data sources I consider reliable, I cannot guarantee the accuracy of any third party cited herein.


asiaOn January 9, 2017, Mars, Inc., owner of the Banfield Pet Hospital veterinary group, the largest pet hospital chain in the nation (~900 units), agreed to acquire VCA, Inc., the markets number two player (~760 units), in a deal valued at $9.1 billion.  The deal represents a 31% premium to the prevailing stock price, just prior to the transaction, and reflects an acquisition multiple of just over 19.0x LTM EBITDA, generally in line with other top tier animal health company acquisitions (15.0x – 20.0x).

VCA’s equity had experienced strong appreciation in the year leading up to the transaction, rising ~32%.  The company was enjoying renewed momentum in its hospital business in 2016 with comps growing 6.3% in 2Q2016 after posting a gain of 7.6% in 1Q.  However, 3Q2016 comp growth of 5.4% was viewed as a sign of deceleration against a back drop of a $0.02 EPS miss. The company’s equity had rebounded to near peak levels before the transaction was announced.

As part of the announcement, Mars indicated that VCA would continue to be led by Bob Antin and will operate as a separate business unit. Antin holds a 3.12% equity stake in VCA, which is valued at ~$240 million in the transaction.  It is our expectation that the two hospital chains will be merged at some point to realize the clear operating synergies between the organizations.  Antitrust is not the reason the businesses are expected to be kept separate in the near term.  There are approximately 26,000 pet hospitals in the U.S. and Banfield and VCA operate under different service models.

The business logic of the deal is hard to question.  Key reasons for the acquisition include the following:

  • Economies of Scope. While VCA and Banfield operate under different service models, they are vying for the same customer.  By owning the two biggest banners in the space, Mars can begin strategically thinking about how to rationalize current and future locations to maximize performance within its portfolio.  The data available to them for strategic planning purposes alone should be invaluable. The combined expertise should enable Mars to bring the highest quality of animal care to the largest addressable market.
  • Economies of Scale. Setting aside, for now, the clear potential to consolidate back office operations, the deal comes with ample potential scale benefits.  One of the most attractive aspects of VCA is its lab business, Antech Diagnostics.  While Antech is already the reference lab for Banfield, they also drive meaningful volumes for IDEXX (in-house diagnostics and consumables) and ABAXIS (hematology).  Some of this business is expected to flow to Antech over time.  Additionally, the two organizations have distinct distributor relationships, with VCA linked with Henry Schein and Banfield working with MWI.  We would expect this business will soon be up for grabs.
  • Acquisitions. While we expect Mars will be out of the hospital acquisition game for a short period, given that there is 90% of the market still to capture and roll-ups continuing to happen, we expect they will be back in the market as a buyer within 12 months.  However, the combination will remove a meaningful source of price inflation in the market, where VCA and Mars have historically gone head-to-head for attractive deals, thereby driving up price. Unless someone else fills this void, I would expect sellers would lose leverage as private equity is unlikely to be a competitor in a rising interest rate world.
  • Shifting Exposure. As the largest veterinary asset in the Mars portfolio, Banfield presents some unique problems in that its growth is largely tied to unit growth at PetSmart.  PetSmart was previously a 21% owner of Banfield’s parent, Medical Management, Inc.  Mars repurchased PetSmart’s interest in the company in late 2015, in a deal that has largely gone under the radar. The majority of Banfield hospitals operate inside PetSmart locations.  In contrast, VCA clinics are standalone operations.  With PetSmart box growth rate waning, gaining additional exposure to the standalone clinic market diversifies risk for Mars.

While the transaction between Mars and VCA may make very good business sense, it remains to be seen how consumers will benefit.  Most of the marketplace discussion has been about the potential for limited choice and rising prices, as opposed to better service and value for consumers.  As Millennials grow in terms of pet ownership, they may also view this as a further “corporatization” of the veterinary market and seek service elsewhere. Only time will tell.


Note: This blog is for informational purposes only. The opinions expressed reflect my view as of the publishing date, which are subject to change. While this post utilizes data sources I consider reliable, I cannot guarantee the accuracy of any third party cited herein.

dwarfEarlier this week it was announced that Mars Petcare had acquired Whistle Labs, designer and marketer of activity monitoring and asset tracking solutions for small companion animals.  The deal was valued at $117 million (or $119 million depending on the source of information).  Whistle had raised $25 million in outside capital, including $21 million in two institutional rounds, including a $15 million Series B round in January 2015, led by Nokia Growth Partners.  The Series B also including participation from, among others,  Melo7 Tech Ventures (the equity fund of Carmelo Anthony, NBA superstar) and QueensBridge Venture Partner (the equity fund of Nasir Jones, world famous rapper).  The post-money on the Series B was reported to be $26.65 million, meaning these investors made a ~ 4.5x cash-on-cash return on the sale and triple digit internal rate of return based on the short duration.

When Whistle launched its solution set the market was bifurcated between activity monitoring and asset tracking.  The asset tracking side was being addressed largely by companies that were re-purposing technology that had been deployed in more traditional markets, such as logistics, automobile tracking, or human tracking (yes these do exist).  However, these companies did not necessarily recognize the emotional engagement aspects of the pet space, and did little to build community.  The network costs of these businesses were high, and the user base was small.  Given that the initial hardware purchase was subsidized, these businesses lost money, sometimes large amounts of it.  Further, there was no effective retail channel for this class of products as the major pet specialty retailers were not well situated to sell a $200 device with a monthly subscription attached thereto or explain the value proposition effectively to customers, and therefore the market was slow to emerge. Traditional channels, such as consumer electronics and mobile phone centers, were no more effective at attracting pet owners let alone articulating the purchase rationale.  It did not help that most of these solutions had large form factors and minimal visual appeal.

In contrast, Whistle brought to market an activity tracker with a high level of aesthetic appeal at a much lower cost.  Of significance, gone were the monthly subscriptions.  The problem was the market wanted asset tracking as the linkage between the activity monitor and the benefits use case was just not obvious to pet owners.  In short, there was data but not much to do with it and sharing it was cumbersome.  Much like the early human activity tracking sector, the real value of these devices did not emerge until the ecosystem and community aspect developed. Whistle would use part of its Series B financing to acquire Snaptracs, the Qualcomm based asset tracking solution that it spun out in 2013.  Using their industrial engineering acumen, Whistle combined the two solution sets into a best of breed offering and the business began to accelerate.

About the time of the Series B, Whistle began collaborating with Mars on the use cases of its device.  The challenge became how do you balance the venture capitalists agenda — drive brand, drive sales, drive community — with the Mars agenda around linking the data to wellness outcomes and product sales.  In the end, we believe Mars acquired Whistle to enable its agenda to become central to the future of the business.  Given that the lifetime value of a subscriber was high as the revenue was recurring, shareholder value increased exponentially.

While the acquisition and the prevailing purchase price will certainly give momentum to the connected pet space, the perceived rationale is somewhat vexing to rationalize.  Connected pet solutions that have been funded and launched into the market over the past few years have focused more on emotive connections (remote viewing, remote treating, automated feeding) than wellness outcomes, and here we have an acquisition rationale that we believe is tied more to healthcare outcomes than humanization. That is not to say the deal won’t be effective in catalyzing more investment and further M&A; the return profile will ensure that happens.

This deal very much validates the space, and we have been on record suggesting more large consolidators get into connected pet since 2013, when we marketed the Snaptracs business for sale.  We believe other large players will have to take notice and find avenues to take a position in connected pet. Further, we think the Mars acquisition rationale is specific to them and does not require a pivot by other operators to enhance their focus on wellness.  Mars is unique in that it is the only enterprise that has both veterinary hospitals and branded companion animal consumables, and therefore could view Whistle in a unique way and justify the purchase price as a result. It does help that they are a very large private enterprise and do not have to kowtow to outside shareholders.

One of the key themes we witnessed at the most recent Global Pet Expo was a proliferation of solutions aimed at connecting owners to their pets wherever they were resident at the time — the home, the grooming salon, the daycare or dog walker, the boarding facility. etc.  Expect the Whistle deal to give them all more conviction and attract a host of new entrants seeking to capitalize on the market opportunity. Ultimately, pet owners stand to benefit most.


Note: This blog is for informational purposes only. The opinions expressed reflect my view as of the publishing date, which are subject to change.  While this post utilizes data sources I consider reliable, I cannot guarantee the accuracy of any third party cited herein.